Baroque Art emerged in Europe around 1600, as a reaction against the Mannerist style that dominated the Late Renaissance.
Baroque Art is less complex and more realistic than Mannerism as the above example by Caravaggio shows.
This movement was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a return to tradition and spirituality.
One of the great periods of art history, Baroque Art was developed by Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, and Gianlorenzo Bernini, among others. This was also the age of Rubens, Rembrandt, Velázquez and Vermeer.
In the 18th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo style.